4/28/2008

召集令状

Posted by EyeDoc

似乎有些人對 1941-1945 時期台灣人是志愿當兵,還是被迫征召
入伍,還弄不清楚.所以我們做一點澄清.

台灣人服役方式甚多,而且隨時机而變化:

在瀋陽事變(9-18事變, 1931)之後,日本軍方開始招集台灣翻譯人員及軍夫到滿洲(東北)戰線服務.這些算是志愿雇員,並無軍籍.到1942年才開始正式征招軍屬及軍夫.先是有"陸軍特別志願兵制度",1943年再施行"海軍志願兵制度".到1945年太平洋戰爭非常吃緊後,變成全面徵兵(17歲以上義務服兵役).比較特選的"軍人"是1942年1月16日之後才開始招募.同一時期有從台灣原住民招集的"高砂義勇隊".加上戰爭末期的"學徒兵".可以說人人上榜.倒是沒人被"拉伕"上戰場 - 這倒是真的.

當然全世界各國服兵役一事,大致相同: 當局以義相召,年輕人又一腔熱血.所以台灣人志願報名的固然不少,但被上司半迫半勸的也不在少數.到戰爭末期,知道有去無回,後者比例自然升高.只是人人被稱"志愿"兵.有點日本官僚先按下未來脫離責任伏筆的意味.而事實上台籍日本兵迄今還是沒有領到任何退役福利.

按照林老醫師回憶:"...戰爭後期,日本空軍海軍都差不多完了,還是要增加徵兵,台灣是志愿兵名義,實際上是強制的.我是滿21歲就醫專畢業了.畢業三年多(還)不滿25歲,所以日本海軍就想徵(召)我當海軍衛生兵,而當軍醫官的工作.后來大概覺得不好意思,入營前十天要我去商量,問我要不要去當囑託醫,只是薪俸只有市面的一半多一點,我想不答應也不行,(就)答應了.誰知不到三個月米軍來大空襲,高雄變戰地..." (按:空襲日是1944年10月12日.)

當年的"召集令状",又稱"赤紙".几乎沒有殘留本.大概報到後官方全部銷毀.有一在日本本土使用的仿照本,讓大家看看:

(正反兩面如上; 大小: 15.5 x 25.7cm.)

收到召集令後,每個人自身感受大概不同,家人反應則可能一致,悲過於喜 - 加上喜從何來?

9 則留言:

Patrick Cowsill 提到...

This is quite interesting. I guess this is the red sheet, which you're pretty sure is a draft card (I wish I could see those small characters on it).

Is there some more background on the source? Do you actually have one of the sheets?

Patrick Cowsill 提到...

BTW, have you found any Taiwanese accounts of POWs on these (hell)ships?

EyeDoc 提到...

The red sheet shown here is only a replica (available for a price in Japan). No one seems to have the the original. Most likely all destroyed once the draftee reported to training camp and handed it in.

The red sheet was actually quite well-known, especially during WWII when so many were called up for duty.

And the draft laws implemented in Taiwan were an extension of the Japanese draft system (although with dubious legality). This system was established during the Meiji era. Only the US has a totally voluntary military force, and that only after the Viet Nam war, too.

Kai-shao 提到...

參考一下我整理的1943年台灣島內的歷史情境,有電影片段:

サヨンの鐘(Sayon no kane),1943

EyeDoc 提到...

Dear 陳先生:

您的研究非常深入.Very impressive.

我本來以為南滿映畫的宣傳片不足為道.現在從民俗的觀點看來,也頗有可取之處.

題外話: 李香蘭今年88.還在世.她的一生和我們父母一代的歷史平行.也是一個傳奇人物.

Patrick Cowsill 提到...

This is what they figure for the destruction of Japanese war time documents, the biggest destruction of government documents we have seen:

"The destruction of Japan's Military History Archives of the National Institute of Defense Studies estimated in 2003 that as much as 70 percent of the army's wartime records were burned or otherwise destroyed . . . A report filed by the 27th Marines, on September 24th, 1945, documents the systematic destruction of records by the Japanese after the initial surrender to the allies, but before the Allied troops arrived" (Edward Drea, Researching Japanese War Crimes Records, p. 9).

The Japanese had two weeks, from surrender to arrival of US troops, to clean up their untidy affairs. Still, reams of information remain. A lot of the unknown is sitting around in boxes in Washington, D.C., waiting for people to sort through and make sense of it. It would be really something to unearth a red sheet here in Taiwan. I'm sure there must be one or two floating around.

題外話: Drea also reports 173 Taiwanese were indicted for war crimes. A lot of this is, I'm sure, "to the victor the spoils". Some of the indictments, needless to say, would have to be credible. To contemplate the wide range of behavior during a war, from doctors who saved lives to *&^%bags, who carried on, no better than petty thugs, is well, I don't know, hard.

EyeDoc 提到...

Destruction of wartime military records is probably a universal act. On the civilian side, the law archives of the Japanese colonial Governor General's office did survive intact and have been actively looked into, although only as part of historical research, see, e.g.,

http://www.law.ntu.edu.tw/03/professor/tswang/台灣總督府檔案在法律史研究上的運用.doc

When in fact, therein may lie the legal foundation for the compensation for the vets. Strangely, the Taiwanese legal profession is still quite reticent as far as actively promoting the vet issues.

I am not too optimistic about recovering the red sheets. The same draft system is still at work even now. My personal experience is probably common to all. That is, I don't even remember what happened to my own draft order, probably handed in either at Taipei Station boarding the ultra-slow train south to Chen-Gong-Ling training camp in Taichung or at the camp itself. That was the pre-xerox era, in the summer of 1965. During the 60s, all males of the junior classes of all colleges in Taiwan must report to CGL camp in the summer.

I do still have the original of the district residential register restoring my civilian status. The same was probably done immediately post WWII for those who served in the Japanese military.

Indeed, of those charged with war crimes, 20 some were executed. Very few details were/are known.

BH 提到...

When did you graduate from college, Eye Doc? Just curious?
1966???

Patrick Cowsill 提到...

在瀋陽事變(9-18事變, 1931)之後,日本軍方開始招集台灣翻譯人員及軍夫到滿洲(東北)戰線服務.

So, is 1931 the first time we have a record of Taiwanese serving in the Japanese Imperial Army? Do you have any specifics, like was there a decree, name of official, etc. that signed this into law?

Also, am I missing something? Why would Taiwanese be useful as translators in that region up north - Manchuria?